Aleppo Syria History
The ongoing conflict in Syria has devastated Aleppo, Syria's largest city and one of the world's most extensive archaeological destructions. Aleppo was Syria's "largest" city, with a population of more than 1.5 million people and an area of more than 2 million square kilometres.
Having retaken rebel-held parts of the city, the regime now controls an area stretching from Mosul to Aleppo and from Egypt to Egypt. The current president, who also destroyed much of it, visited Aleppo and destroyed the remnants of his 30-year rule. When Zangi died 28 years later in Damascus, he had ruled a large population center in Syria, stretching from the Druse city of Suwayda to the Sunni city of Aleppo. After independence, Aleppo was integrated into the Ottoman Empire and then into the Syrian Arab Republic under the rule of President Hafez al-Assad.
Aleppo was able to stand out as a thriving and developing city, but it was also one of the largest cities in the Levant before the Syrian civil war broke out.
The fact that Aleppo is the oldest city in the world means that it has experienced its fair share of war, and since the battle for Aleppo began in 2012, the city has suffered massive destruction and has been bombarded with some of the worst-hit cities. The civil war in Syria is far from over, with the government taking cities such as Aleppo from the rebels. Syria's resistance was crushed in December by a brutal Russian-backed attack that raised questions about whether the rebels will be able to mount an uprising.
Aleppo has been one of the most important cities in the Middle East for centuries and an important economic centre for the region. During the Umayyad and Abbasid periods, when Aleppo flourished, it was declared the northern capital of Syria by Sayf Addawla, who founded the state of Hamadani in 944 AD. With the kingdom based in Qatna in the south, Aleppo became the power center of a number of kingdoms, such as the Al-Qassimid and Qabouni dynasty.
In ancient times, the Greeks called the Levant or Greater Syria, which included northern Syria and parts of Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey, Syria. Lower Syria was located in Lebanon and in anti-Lebanon and was known as Coele Syria or Hollow Syria (from the Greek "Coele").
The traders in Aleppo continued with the name of their city, although it is often said that many in Africa recognized the name Aleppo more than in Syria. Aleppo, along with other Syrian cities, is the only one to have a traditional music form, which emerged at a time when Muslims ruled Spain.
The historic minaret of the Grand Mosque, here in 2009, was demolished. Aleppo peppers are sold in markets throughout Syria, including the famous Al-Madina Souk in Aleppo, which was damaged during the war.
According to the AAAS, Aleppo was captured in 2014 and is now under the control of the Syrian army. The citadel is one of the few sites in Aleppo that has not been hit.
In 2012, different rebel brigades seized key northern cities, including parts of Aleppo, Syria's largest city. Despite Assad's tactics of terror, rebels made progress in major cities and began to take control of other areas in northern Syria between November 2012 and April 2013.
It does not take long to realize that only a small part of Aleppo has been destroyed, but it is heartbreaking to see the destruction here. Once you reach the center of Aleppo, life in the city is busy and it is devastating to walk through the old city of Syria. It remains a commercial capital that has always been somewhat away from the political centre. The French would hand over Aleppo to Damascus, and the French to the Ottoman Empire, Turkey, and Lebanon.
Free Syrian Army rebels captured what they believe to be the largest building in the city, the Old City of Aleppo, from pro-regime militiamen on July 31, 2012. Syrian rebels walk through the burned-out parts of a complex after the Syrian army regained control of it on October 14, 2012. This was a significant moment in Syria's civil war, as the rebels and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) gained control of Syria's four largest cities.
Both Mosul and Aleppo can trace their origins back thousands of years to a region long known as the cradle of civilization. Both ancient cities are crucial and irreplaceable for human history, and both came to Syria from the Euphrates Valley, where the ancient commercial city of Aleppo was born.
Aleppo is Syria's largest city and has historically been a kingmaker in the region, but is now likely to be besieged by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) and its allies. Those who take Aleppo could be waging a campaign to take other cities, including Damascus, as well as Aleppo itself.